Animal Info - Indonesia


Threatened Species, Environmental and Social Data (Mammals, Biodiversity/Ecosystems, Population, Area/Land Use, Protected Lands, Economy, Education), References and Links

Threatened Species

Threatened Species: The following list includes all mammals which occur in Indonesia and are rated as Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN) or Vulnerable (VU) in the 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals

  • Critically Endangered:
  • Endangered:
    • Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus).
    • Banteng (Bos javanicus).
    • Bartel's Rat (Sundamys maxi). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Bawean Deer (Axis kuhlii). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Beaufort's Naked-backed Fruit Bat (Dobsonia beauforti). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Beccari's Shrew (Crocidura beccarii). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Black-spotted Cuscus (Spilocuscus rufoniger).
    • Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus).
    • Bornean Tree Shrew (Tupaia longipes). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Celebes Black Macaque (Macaca nigra). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Celebes Lesser Shrew Rat (Melasmothrix naso). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Celebes Shrew Rat (Crunomys celebensis). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Celebes Soft-furred Rat (Eropeplus canus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Eastern Small-toothed Rat (Macruromys major). 
    • Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus).
    • Grizzled Leaf Monkey (Presbytis comata). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Heavenly Hill Rat (Bunomys coelestis). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Indonesian Mountain Weasel (Mustela lutreolina). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Insular Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus keyensis). (Endemic to Indonesia.) 
    • Javan Thick-thumbed Bat (Glischropus javanus). 
    • Javan Warty Pig (Sus verrucosus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Koopman's Pencil-tailed Tree Mouse (Chiropodomys karlkoopmani). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Long-beaked Echidna (Zaglossus bruijni).
    • Long-headed Hill Rat (Bunomys prolatus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Moor Macaque (Macaca maura). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Mountain Anoa (Bubalus quarlesi). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • (Bornean) Orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus). 
    • Otter Civet (Cynogale bennetti).
    • Paradox Shrew (Crocidura paradoxura). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Pig-tailed Snub-nosed Monkey (Simias concolor). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis larvatus). 
    • Sei Whale (Balaenoptera borealis).
    • Sipora Flying Squirrel (Hylopetes sipora).
    • Sulawesi Bear Rat (Paruromys ursinus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Tiger (Panthera tigris).
    • White-toothed Melomys (Coccymys albidens). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
  • Vulnerable:
    • Alor Mastiff Bat (Otomops johnstonei). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Asiatic Golden Cat (Catopuma temminckii).
    • Babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Bare-backed Rousette ( Fruit Bat) (Rousettus spinalatus).
    • Bay Cat (Catopuma badia).
    • Biak Naked-backed Fruit Bat (Dobsonia emersa). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Biak Roundleaf Bat (Geelvinck Bay Leaf-nosed Bat) (Hipposideros papua). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Bismarck's Trumpet-eared Bat (Kerivoula myrella).
    • Bonthain Rat (Rattus bontanus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Brown-bearded Sheath-tailed Bat (Taphozous achates). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Celebes Long-nosed Squirrel (Hyosciurus heinrichi). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa).
    • Crested Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros inexpectatus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • D'Albertis Ringtail (Pseudochirops albertisii).
    • Dark Tube-nosed Fruit Bat (Nyctimene celaeno). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Dhole (Cuon alpinus).
    • Dingiso (Dendrolagus mbaiso). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Dollman's Spiny Rat (Maxomys dollmani). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Doria's Tree-kangaroo (Dendrolagus dorianus).
    • Dugong (Dugong dugon).
    • Dusky Pademelon (Thylogale brunii).
    • Elegant Margareta Rat (Margaretamys elegans). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra). 
    • Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus).
    • Flat-headed Cat (Prionailurus planiceps).
    • Flores Giant Rat (Papagomys armandvillei). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Fly River Leaf-nosed Bat (Hipposideros muscinus).
    • Gaskell's False Serotine (Bat) (Hesperoptenus gaskelli). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Geelvink Bay Flying Fox (Pteropus pohlei). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Golden-bellied Tree Shrew (Tupaia chrysogaster). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Great-tailed Troik (Dactylopsila megalura).
    • Greater Long-eared Bat (Nyctophilus timoriensis).
    • Hairy-nosed Otter (Lutra sumatrana). (May be extinct here.)
    • Halmahera Blossom Bat (Syconycteris carolinae). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Hoogerwerf's Rat (Rattus hoogerwerfi). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).
    • Javan Langur (Trachypithecus auratus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Javan Mastiff Bat (Otomops formosus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Javan Slit-faced Bat (Nycteris javanica). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Javan Tail-less Fruit Bat (Megaerops kusnotoi). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Jentink's Squirrel (Sundasciurus jentinki).
    • Kei Myotis (Myotis stalkeri). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Kloss's Gibbon (Hylobates klossi). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Komodo (Rintja) Mouse (Komodomys rintjanus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Lesser Ranee Mouse (Haeromys pusillus).
    • Lesser Tube-nosed Bat (Nyctimene draconilla).
    • Lesser Tube-nosed Fruit Bat (Nyctimene minutus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Little Golden-mantled Flying Fox (Pteropus pumilus).
    • Little Margareta Rat (Margaretamys parvus).(Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Little Soft-furred Rat (Rattus mollicomulus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Long-tailed Shrew Rat (Tateomys macrocercus). (Endemic to Indonesia.) 
    • Lowland Long-nosed Squirrel (Hyosciurus ileile). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Mainland Serow (Capricornis sumatraensis).
    • Malayan Porcupine (Hystrix brachyura).
    • Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus).
    • Marbled Cat (Pardofelis marmorata).
    • Mentawai Flying Squirrel (Iomys sipora). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Mentawai Leaf Monkey (Presbytis potenziani). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Mentawai Long-tailed Giant Rat (Leopoldamys siporanus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Mottled-tailed Shrew Mouse (Neohydromus fuscus). 
    • New Guinea Pademelon (Thylogale brownii).
    • New Guinea Quoll (Dasyurus albopunctatus).
    • New Guinea Sheath-tailed Bat (Emballonura furax). 
    • Obi Cuscus (Phalanger rothschildi). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Oriental Shrew (Crocidura orientalis). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Peleng Rat (Rattus pelurus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Philippine Gray Flying Fox (Pteropus speciosus).
    • Pig-tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina).
    • Plush-coated Ringtail (Pseudochirops corinnae).
    • Ranee Mouse (Haeromys margarettae).
    • Salokko Rat (Taeromys arcuatus). (Endemic to Indonesia.) 
    • Secretive Dwarf Squirrel (Prosciurillus abstrusus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Seram Fruit Bat (Pteropus ocularis). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Short-haired Water Rat (Paraleptomys wilhelmina).
    • Short-headed Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros breviceps). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Small-toothed Fruit Bat (Neopteryx frosti). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Smooth-coated Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata). (Previously listed as Lutra perspicillata.)
    • Sperm Whale (Physeter catodon).
    • Spiny Ceram Rat (Rattus feliceus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Stein's Cuscus (Phalanger vestitus).
    • Sula Rat (Rattus elaphinus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Sulawesi Montane Rat (Taeromys hamatus). (Endemic to Indonesia.) 
    • Sulawesi Palm Civet (Macrogalidia musschenbroekii). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Sumatran Mastiff Bat (Mormopterus doriae). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Sunburned Rat (Rattus adustus). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Sunda Long-eared Bat (Nyctophilus heran). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Talaud Fruit Bat (Acerodon humilis). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Tate's Shrew Rat (Tateomys rhinogradoides). (Endemic to Indonesia.) 
    • Telefomin Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros corynophyllus).
    • Thin Shrew (Crocidura tenuis). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Watts's Spiny Rat (Maxomys wattsi). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Western Naked-backed Fruit Bat (Dobsonia peronii). (Endemic to Indonesia.)
    • Western Shrew Mouse (Pseudohydromys occidentalis).

Environmental and Social Data


Total number of species: 436 (Groombridge & Jenkins 1994)
Number of endemic species: 201 (Groombridge & Jenkins 1994)
Number of threatened species: 1996: 128 (25 % of total species) (IUCN 1996); 2000: 140 (32 % of total species) (IUCN 2000)


Indonesia contains the Sumatran Montane Forests, Sulawesi Moist Forests, Moluccas Moist Forests, Lesser Sundas Dry & Monsoon Forests, Maoke Range Alpine Heathlands, Central Sulawesi Lakes, Sundaland & Eastern Indonesian Archipelago Mangroves, and Banda-Flores Seas Marine Ecosystems Global 200 Ecoregions as well as portions of the Sumatran-Nicobar Islands Lowland Forests, Central Borneo Montane Forests, Northern Borneo-Palawan Moist Forests, New Guinea Montane Forests, New Guinea Lowland Forests, Northern Australia & Trans-Fly Savannas, Sundaland Rivers & Swamps, New Guinea Rivers & Streams, Lakes Kutubu & Sentani, New Guinea Mangroves, Sulawesi Sea, and Northern New Guinea & Coral Sea Marine Ecosystem Global 200 Ecoregions (Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999)
Indonesia contains the Wallacea (Eastern Indonesia) Global Biodiversity Hotspot and portions of the Western Sunda Global Biodiversity Hotspot (Cons. Intl. 1999a)
Indonesia is a Megadiversity Country (Cons. Intl. 1999b)


Population in 1995: 198,402,000 (Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995)
Population density in 1995: 103.4 people/sq km (267.7 people/sq mi) (Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995)
Population in 1998: 212,941,810 (World Almanac 1999)
Average population growth rate, 1980 - 1990: 1.8 % (World Bank 1992)

Area/Land Use

Area: 1,919,443 sq km (741,101 sq mi) (Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995)
Percentages of primary world ecosystem types:

  • Other Coastal Aquatic: 24 %
  • Major Wetland: 9 %
  • Grass and Shrub: 4 %
  • Crop and Settlements: 9 %
  • Interrupted Woods: 14 %
  • Major Forests: 40 %

(Groombridge 1992)

Percent of land area classified as the following degree of human disturbance: Low: 52 %; Medium: 10 %; High: 38 % (WRI 1994)

Protected Lands

Area: 192,310 sq km (74,232 sq mi) (Groombridge 1992)
Percent of land protected: 7.19 % totally protected; 2.83 % partially protected; 10.02 % totally or partially protected (Groombridge 1992)


Per capita GNP ($ U.S.) (1991): $592 (WRI 1994)
Per capita GDP ($ U.S.) (1996): $3,770 (World Almanac 1999)


Percent of females in secondary education (1989): 43 % (World Bank 1992)
Percent adult literacy: Female: 68 % (1990), 42 % (1970); Male: 84 % (1990), 66 % (1970) (WRI 1994)

References and Links

References: Cons. Intl. 1999a, Cons. Intl. 1999b, Groombridge 1992, Groombridge & Jenkins 1994, IUCN 1994, IUCN 1996, IUCN 2000, Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995, Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999, World Almanac 1999, World Bank 1992, WRI 1994

General Links (After you get to one of these sites, click on the link for Indonesia): CIA World Factbook, Foreign Embassies of Washington, D.C., Library of Congress - Country Studies, University of Texas - Country Maps, Washington Post - Countries, World Resources Institute - Country Profiles 

Links for IndonesiaConservation International - Indonesia, Nature Conservation in Indonesia, The Nature Conservancy - IndonesiaUnited Nations Development Program - Indonesia (English and Indonesian), U.S. Agency for International Development Programs - Indonesia, World Wide Web Virtual Library - Indonesia, World Wildlife Fund - Indonesia, World Wildlife Fund Expeditions - Heart of Borneo

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Last modified: February 18, 2006;

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