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Animal Info - Mountain Anoa

(Other Names: 山地矮水牛, 西里伯斯野水牛, ヤマアノア, Anoa de Montaņa, Anoa de Quarle, Anoa des Montagnes, Anoa pegunungan, Berganoa, Búfalo das Montanhas, Quarles Anoa)

Bubalus quarlesi (Anoa q., A. depressicornis fergusoni + A. d. quarlesi)

Status: Endangered


Contents

1. Profile (Picture)
2. Tidbits
3. Status and Trends (IUCN Status, Countries Where Currently Found, Population Estimates, History of Distribution, Threats and Reasons for Decline)
4. Data on Biology and Ecology (Weight, Habitat, Gestation Period, Birth Season, Birth Rate, Social Organization)
5. References


Profile

Picture: Mountain Anoa (27 Kb JPEG) (Decin Zool. Garden)

The anoa is a miniature water buffalo, similar in appearance to a deer, weighing 150 - 300 kg (330 - 660 lb). It lives in undisturbed montane forest. Anoa apparently are found singly or in pairs, rather than herds, except when the cows are about to give birth. One young is born per year.

The mountain anoa's range has probably always been restricted to the mountainous areas of Sulawesi (Celebes), Indonesia, and possibly nearby islands such as Buton. Too few data exist to quantify its status, but it appears to be widely distributed on Sulawesi. There is little doubt that it has been in decline since the beginning of the 20th century, and there is no doubt that it has declined over the 1970 - 1995 period, precipitously in some areas. (CBSG 1996)

Reasons for the mountain anoa's decline include hunting for hide, horns and meat by the natives; shooting by the military; and loss of habitat due to the advancement of settlement. Currently, hunting is the more serious factor in most areas. It does not appear to be adaptable to humans.


Tidbits

*** Anoas are unusual among the wild cattle of Southeast Asia because they are one of the few to depend mainly on undisturbed forest.

*** Very little is known about the ecology, behavior or general biology of the mountain anoa.


Status and Trends

IUCN Status:

  • 1960's - 1994: Endangered
  • 1996 - 2004: Endangered (Criteria: C1+2a) (Population Trend: Decreasing) (IUCN 2004)

Countries Where the Mountain Anoa Is Currently Found:

2004: Occurs on the island of Sulawesi (= Celebes) (Indonesia) (IUCN 2004).

Population Estimates:

[Note: Figures given are for wild populations only.]

History of Distribution:

The mountain anoa's range has probably always been restricted to the mountainous areas of Sulawesi (Celebes), Indonesia, and nearby islands such as Buton. Too few data exist to quantify its status, but it appears to be widely distributed on Sulawesi. There is little doubt that it has been in decline since the beginning of the 20th century, and there is no doubt that it has declined over the 1970 - 1995 period, precipitously in some areas. (CBSG 1996)

Threats and Reasons for Decline:

Reasons for the mountain anoa's decline include hunting for hide, horns and meat by the natives; shooting by the military; and loss of habitat due to the advancement of settlement. Currently, hunting is the more serious factor in most areas. It does not appear to be adaptable to humans.


Data on Biology and Ecology

Weight:

The mountain anoa weighs 150 - 300 kg (330 - 660 lb).

Habitat:

The mountain anoa is found in undisturbed montane forest.

The mountain anoa is one of the species that live in both the Wallacea Biodiversity Hotspot (Cons. Intl. 2005) and the Sulawesi Moist Forests Global 200 Ecoregion. (Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999)

Gestation Period:

275 - 315 days.

Birth Season:

There is apparently no specific birth season.

Birth Rate:

1 young per year.

Social Organization:

Anoa apparently associate in pairs, rather than herds, except when the cows are about to give birth.


References

Burton & Pearson 1987, CBSG 1996, Cons. Intl. 2005, Curry-Lindahl 1972, Decin Zool. Garden, IUCN 1966, IUCN 1994, IUCN 1996, IUCN 2000, IUCN 2003a, IUCN 2004, Macdonald 1984, Melisch 1995, Nowak & Paradiso 1983, Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999


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Last modified: March 5, 2005;

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