Animal Info - India


Threatened Species, Environmental and Social Data (Mammals, Biodiversity/Ecosystems, Population, Area/Land Use, Protected Lands, Economy, Education), References and Links

Threatened Species

Threatened Species: The following list includes all mammals which occur in India and are rated as Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN) or Vulnerable (VU) in the 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals

  • Critically Endangered:
  • Endangered:
    • Andaman Shrew (Crocidura andamanensis).  (Endemic to India.)
    • Andaman Spiny Shrew (Crocidura hispida).  (Endemic to India.)
    • Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus).
    • Banteng (Bos javanicus). 
    • Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus).
    • Capped Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus pileatus). 
    • Chiru (Tibetan Antelope) (Pantholops hodgsonii). 
    • Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus).
    • Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica).
    • Golden Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus geei). 
    • Hispid Hare (Caprolagus hispidus).
    • Hoolock Gibbon (Bunipithecus hoolock) (Previously Hylobates hoolock).
    • Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis).
    • Indus River Dolphin (Platanista minor).
    • Kondana Soft-furred Rat (Millardia kondana). (Endemic to India.)
    • Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus). (Endemic to India.)
    • Markhor (Capra falconeri).
    • Marsh Mongoose (Herpestes palustris).  (Endemic to India.) (Previously considered to be a subspecies of Herpestes javanicus.)
    • Nicobar Shrew (Crocidura nicobarica). (Endemic to India.)
    • Nicobar Tree Shrew (Tupaia nicobarica). (Endemic to India.)
    • Nilgiri Tahr (Hemitragus hylocrius). (Endemic to India.)
    • Particolored Flying Squirrel (Hylopetes alboniger).
    • Peters' Tube-nosed Bat (Murina grisea). (Endemic to India.) 
    • Red Panda (Lesser Panda) (Ailurus fulgens).
    • Sei Whale (Balaenoptera borealis).
    • Servant Mouse (Mus famulus). (Endemic to India.)
    • Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia).
    • Tiger (Panthera tigris).
    • Wild Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). (Previously Bubalus arnee.)
    • Woolly Flying Squirrel (Eupetaurus cinereus).
  • Vulnerable:
    • Andaman Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus cognatus). (Endemic to India.)
    • Andaman Rat (Rattus stoicus). (Endemic to India.) 
    • Argali (Ovis ammon).
    • Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus).
    • Asiatic Golden Cat (Catopuma temminckii).
    • Asiatic Wild Ass (Equus hemionus).
    • Assamese Macaque (Macaca assamensis).
    • Back-striped Weasel (Mustela strigidorsa).
    • Barasingha (Cervus duvauceli).
    • Bare-bellied Hedgehog (Hemiechinus nudiventris). (Endemic to India.) 
    • Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra).
    • Central Kashmir Vole (Alticola montosa). (Endemic to India.)
    • Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa).
    • Day's Shrew (Suncus dayi). (Endemic to India.) 
    • Dhole (Cuon alpinus).
    • Dugong (Dugong dugon).
    • Eld's Deer (Cervus eldi).
    • Elvira Rat (Cremnomys elvira). (Endemic to India.)
    • Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra). 
    • Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus).
    • Four-horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis).
    • Gaur (Bos frontalis).
    • Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus).
    • Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).
    • Indian Giant Squirrel (Ratufa indica). (Endemic to India.)
    • Irrawaddy Squirrel (Callosciurus pygerythrus).
    • Jerdon's Palm Civet (Paradoxurus jerdoni). (Endemic to India.)
    • Kashmir Cave Bat (Myotis longipes). 
    • Kerala Rat (Rattus ranjiniae). (Endemic to India.)
    • Khajuria's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros durgadasi). (Endemic to India.)
    • Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat (Hipposideros hypophyllus). (Endemic to India.) 
    • Lesser Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros).
    • Mainland Serow (Capricornis sumatraensis).
    • Malayan Porcupine (Hystrix brachyura).
    • Mandelli's Mouse-eared Bat (Myotis sicarius).
    • Marbled Cat (Pardofelis marmorata).
    • Mouflon (or Urial) (Ovis orientalis).
    • Nicobar Flying Fox (Pteropus faunulus). (Endemic to India.) 
    • Nilgiri Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus johnii). (Endemic to India.)
    • Nilgiri Marten (Martes gwatkinsii). (Endemic to India.)
    • Nonsense Rat (Rattus burrus). (Endemic to India.)
    • Pale Grey Shrew (Crocidura pergrisea). (Endemic to India.)
    • Palm Rat (Rattus palmarum). (Endemic to India.)
    • Red Goral (Naemorhedus baileyi).
    • Rusty-spotted Cat (Prionailurus rubiginosus).
    • Sikkim Rat (Rattus sikkimensis).
    • Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus).
    • Slow Loris (Loris tardigradus).
    • Smooth-coated Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata). (Previously Lutra perspicillata.) 
    • Sperm Whale (Physeter catodon).
    • Sri Lankan Giant Squirrel (Ratufa macroura).
    • Sri Lankan Highland Shrew (Suncus montanus).
    • Stumptail Macaque (Macaca arctoides).
    • Takin (Budorcas taxicolor).
    • Wild Goat (Capra aegagrus). 
    • Wild Yak (Bos grunniens).

Environmental and Social Data


Total number of species: 316 (Groombridge & Jenkins 1994)
Number of endemic species: 44 (Groombridge & Jenkins 1994)
Number of threatened species: 1996: 75 (23.7 % of total species) (IUCN 1996); 2000: 90 (28% of total species) (IUCN 2000)


India contains the Western Ghats Moist Forests, Andaman Islands Forests, Eastern Indian Monsoon Forests, and Western Ghat Rivers & Streams Global 200 Ecoregions as well as portions of the Sumatran-Nicobar Islands Lowland Forests, Northeastern India & Myanmar Hill Forests, Middle Asian Mountains Temperate Forests, Western Himalayan Temperate Forests, Eastern Himalayan Broadleaf & Conifer Forests, Eastern Himalayan Alpine Meadows, Tibetan Plateau Steppe, Terai-Duar Savannas & Grasslands, Sundarbans Mangroves, Indus River Delta & Rann of Kutch, Maldives/Lakshadweep & Chagos Marine Ecosystems, and Andaman & Nicobar Islands Marine Ecosystems Global 200 Ecoregions (Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999)
India contains portions of the Eastern Himalayas and the Sri Lanka & Western Ghats of India Global Biodiversity Hotspots (Cons. Intl. 1999a)
India is a Megadiversity Country (Cons. Intl. 1999b)


Population in 1995: 930,642,000 (Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995)
Population density in 1995: 283.1 people/sq km (733.2 people/sq mi) (Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995)
Population in 1998: 984,003,683 (World Almanac 1999)
Average population growth rate, 1980 - 1990: 2.1 % (World Bank 1992)

Area/Land Use

Area: 3,287,591 sq km (1,269,346 sq mi) (Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995)
Percentages of primary world ecosystem types:

  • Other Coastal Aquatic: 3 %
  • Desert and Semi-desert: 2 %
  • Polar and Alpine: 2 %
  • Grass and Shrub: 12 %
  • Crop and Settlements: 44 %
  • Interrupted Woods: 23 %
  • Major Forests: 14 %

(Groombridge 1992)

Percent of land area classified as the following degree of human disturbance: Low: 2 %; Medium: 42 %; High: 55 % (WRI 1994)

Protected Lands

Area: 137,710 sq km (53,156 sq mi) (Groombridge 1992)
Percent of land protected: 1.4 % totally protected; 2.95 % partially protected; 4.35 % totally or partially protected (Groombridge 1992)


Per capita GNP ($ U.S.) (1991): $330 (WRI 1994)
Per capita GDP ($ U.S.) (1996): $1,600 (World Almanac 1999)


Percent of females in secondary education (1989): 31 % (World Bank 1992)
Percent adult literacy: Female: 34 % (1990), 20 % (1970); Male: 62 % (1990), 47 % (1970) (WRI 1994)

References and Links

References: Cons. Intl. 1999a, Cons. Intl. 1999b, Groombridge 1992, Groombridge & Jenkins 1994, IUCN 1994, IUCN 1996, IUCN 2000, IUCN 2004, Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995, Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999, World Almanac 1999, World Bank 1992, WRI 1994

General Links (After you get to one of these sites, click on the link for India): CIA World Factbook, Foreign Embassies of Washington, D.C., Library of Congress - Country Studies, University of Texas - Country Maps, Washington Post - Countries, World Resources Institute - Country Profiles 

Links for IndiaC. P. Ramaswami Environmental Education Centre, (Non-Governmental Organizations), Project Tiger Directorate, River Dolphins of India, United Nations Development Program: India, U.S. Agency for International Development Programs: India, Wildlife Institute of India, Wildlife Protection Society of India, Wildlife Trust of India, WWF/World Wide Fund for Nature - India

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Last modified: March 20, 2006;

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