Animal Info - Brazil


Threatened Species, Environmental and Social Data (Mammals, Biodiversity/Ecosystems, Population, Area/Land Use, Protected Lands, Economy, Education), References and Links

Threatened Species

Threatened Species: The following list includes all mammals which occur in Brazil and are rated as Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN) or Vulnerable (VU) in the 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals

  • Critically Endangered:
  • Endangered:
  • Vulnerable:
    • Amazonian Manatee (Trichechus inunguis).
    • American Manatee (Trichechus manatus).
    • Amazonian Sac-winged Bat (Saccopteryx gymnura). 
    • Azara's Agouti (Dasyprocta azarae).
    • Behni's Big-eared Bat (Micronycteris behnii).
    • Bishop's Fossorial Spiny Rat (Clyomys bishopi). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Black-fronted Titi (Callicebus nigrifrons). (Endemic to Brazil.) 
    • Black-headed Marmoset (Mico nigriceps). (Endemic to Brazil.) 
    • Black-shouldered Opossum (Caluromysiops irrupta).
    • Blackish Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri vanzolinii). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Bokermann's Nectar Bat (Lonchophylla bokermanni). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Boto (Amazon River Dolphin) (Inia geoffrensis).
    • Brazilian Big-eyed Bat (Chiroderma doriae). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Brazilian Three-banded Armadillo (Tolypeutes tricinctus). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Brown Howler Monkey (Alouatta guariba). (Listed as A. fusca in 1996.).
    • Bush Dog (Speothos venaticus).
    • Bushy-tailed Opossum (Glironia venusta).
    • Carriker's Round-eared Bat (Tonatia carrikeri).
    • Chestnut-striped Short-tailed Opossum (Monodelphis rubida). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Dekeyser's Nectar Bat (Lonchophylla dekeyseri). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Ega Long-tongued Bat (Scleronycteris ega).
    • Emilia's Gracile Mouse Opossum (Gracilinanus emiliae). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Emilia's Short-tailed Opossum (Monodelphis emiliae).
    • Fossorial Giant Rat (Kunsia fronto).
    • Geoffroy's Tufted-ear Marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).
    • Giant Atlantic Tree Rat (Echimys thomasi). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Goeldi's Marmoset (Callimico goeldii).
    • Golden-white Bare-ear Marmoset (Mico leucippe). (Endemic to Brazil.) 
    • Golden-white Tassel-ear Marmoset (Mico chrysoleuca). (Endemic to Brazil.) 
    • Gray Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix cana). 
    • Greater Ghost Bat (Diclidurus ingens).
    • Hairy-tailed Bat Species (Lasiurus ebenus). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Least Big-eared Bat  (Micronycteris pusilla).
    • Lindbergh's Grass Mouse (Akodon lindberghi). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Long-haired Spider Monkey (Ateles belzebuth).
    • Long-nosed Short-tailed Opossum (Monodelphis scalops). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Lowland Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix poeppigii). 
    • Marajó Short-tailed Opossum (Monodelphis maraxina). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Marsh Deer (Blastocerus dichotomus).
    • Masked Titi (Callicebus personatus). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Molelike Mouse (Juscelinomys vulpinus). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • One-striped Short-tailed Opossum (Monodelphis unistriata). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Recife Broad-nosed Bat (Platyrrhinus recifinus). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Red Myotis (Myotis ruber).
    • Red Uakari (Cacajao calvus).
    • Schultz's Round-eared Bat (Tonatia schulzi).
    • Shrewish Short-tailed Opossum (Monodelphis sorex).
    • Southern Bahian Masked Titi (Callicebus melanochir). (Endemic to Brazil.) 
    • Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus).
    • Sperm Whale (Physeter catodon).
    • Strange Big-eared Brown Bat (Histiotus alienus).
    • Theresa's Short-tailed Opossum (Monodelphis theresa).
    • Thin-spined Porcupine (Chaetomys subspinosus). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • White-faced Tree Rat (Echimys chrysurus). (Endemic to Brazil.)
    • Woolly Giant Rat (Kunsia tomentosus).
  • Other:

Environmental and Social Data


Total number of species: 394 (Groombridge & Jenkins 1994)
Number of endemic species: 96 (Groombridge & Jenkins 1994)
Number of threatened species: 1996: 71 (18 % of total species) (IUCN 1996); 2000: 79 (20% of total species) (IUCN 2000)


Brazil contains the Northeast Brazilian Coast Marine Ecosystems Global 200 Ecoregion as well as portions of the Brazilian Atlantic Forests, Varzea Flooded Forests, Rio Negro-Jurua Moist Forests, Southwestern Amazonian Moist Forests, Guayanan Forests, Bolivian Lowland Dry Forests, Cerrado Woodlands & Savannas, Pantanal Flooded Savannas, Guayanan Highlands Freshwater Ecosystems, Upper Amazon & Orinoco Rivers & Streams, Upper Parana River, Varzea & Igapo Freshwater Ecosystems, Brazilian Shield Amazonian Rivers & Streams, Orinoco-Amazon Mangroves & Coastal Swamps, and the Southwest Atlantic Coast Marine Ecosystems Global 200 Ecoregions (Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999)
Brazil contains the Cerrado Global Biodiversity Hotspot and portions of the Atlantic Forest Region Global Biodiversity Hotspot (Cons. Intl. 1999a)
Brazil is a Megadiversity Country (Cons. Intl. 1999b)


Population in 1995: 157,800,000 (Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995)
Population density in 1995: 18.5 people/sq km (48.0 people/sq mi) (Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995)
Population in 1998: 169,806,557 (World Almanac 1999)
Average population growth rate, 1980 - 1990: 2.2 % (World Bank 1992)

Area/Land Use

Area: 8,511,966 sq km (3,286,488 sq mi) (Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995)
Percentages of primary world ecosystem types:

  • Other Coastal Aquatic: 2 %
  • Major Wetland: 2 %
  • Grass and Shrub: 36 %
  • Crop and Settlements: 6 %
  • Interrupted Woods: 12 %
  • Major Forests: 42 %

(Groombridge 1992)

Percent of land area classified as the following degree of human disturbance: Low: 67 %; Medium: 15 %; High: 18 % (WRI 1994)

Protected Lands

Area: 215,670 sq km (83,249 sq mi) (Groombridge 1992)
Percent of land protected: 1.71 % totally protected; 0.83 % partially protected; 2.54 % totally or partially protected (Groombridge 1992)


Per capita GNP ($ U.S.) (1991): $2,920 (WRI 1994)
Per capita GDP ($ U.S.) (1996): $6,300 (World Almanac 1999)


Percent of females in secondary education (1989): 45 % (World Bank 1992)
Percent adult literacy: Female: 80 % (1990), 63 % (1970); Male: 83 % (1990), 69 % (1970) (WRI 1994)

References and Links

References: Cons. Intl. 1999a, Cons. Intl. 1999b, Groombridge 1992, Groombridge & Jenkins 1994, IUCN 1994, IUCN 1996, IUCN 2000, IUCN 2004, Natl. Geog. Soc. 1995, Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999, World Almanac 1999, World Bank 1992, WRI 1994

General Links (After you get to one of these sites, click on the link for Brazil): CIA World Factbook, Foreign Embassies of Washington, D.C., Library of Congress - Country Studies, University of Texas - Country Maps, Washington Post - Countries, World Resources Institute - Country Profiles 

Links for BrazilA Última Arca de Noé/The Last Noah's Ark (Portuguese/English), Amazônia (Portuguese/English),, Conservation International do Brasil (Portuguese), Instituto de Pesquisas Ecológicas (Portuguese), Muriqui Home Page (Portuguese/English), Originalis Natura (Portuguese), The Nature Conservancy - Brazil (English and Portuguese), United Nations Development Program: Brazil (Portuguese), Welcome to Brazil, World Wildlife Fund (WWF) - Brasil

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Last modified: September 9, 2006;

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