Animal Info - Philippines Tube-nosed Fruit Bat

(Other Names: Philippine Tube-nosed Bat, Tube-nosed Fruit Bat)

Nyctimene rabori

Status: Critically Endangered


Contents

1. Profile (Picture)
2. Tidbits
3. Status and Trends (IUCN Status, Countries Where Currently Found, History of Distribution, Threats and Reasons for Decline)
4. Data on Biology and Ecology (Size, Habitat, Age to Maturity, Gestation Period, Birth Season, Birth Rate, Early Development, Diet, Behavior, Density and Range)
5. References


Profile

Pictures: Philippines Tube-nosed Fruit Bat #1 (24 Kb JPEG) (Field Museum); Philippines Tube-nosed Fruit Bat #2 (11 Kb JPEG) (Bat Cons. Intl.)

The Philippines tube-nosed fruit bat has a wingspan of about 55cm (22"). It is almost always found in primary or good secondary forest. Known breeding populations generally occur in a narrow elevational band of forest near the tops of high ridges and on the sides of tall mountains. It is not found in agricultural or urban habitats. The Philippines tube-nosed fruit bat eats wild figs. It roosts in the forest, probably either in vegetation or large hollow trees, but never in caves.

The Philippines tube-nosed fruit bat lives in the remaining lowland rain forests of Negros, Cebu, and Sibuyan in the Philippines. This bat has only been seen once on Cebu, 10 years ago. On Sibuyan, only a small population survives in the hills. The largest population lives on Negros Island, where it now lives principally, perhaps entirely, in narrow ribbons of forest, usually only a few hundred meters (about 1000') wide, around the shoulders of two mountains in the southern part of the island and two in the north.

Habitat loss due to clearing and illegal logging is the major threat to the Philippines tube-nosed fruit bat. Less than 1% of its old-growth lowland forest habitat remains on Negros Island.


Tidbits

*** The Philippines tube-nosed fruit bat is one of the few striped bats in the world. It has a broad dark stripe down the center of its back.

*** The Philippines tube-nosed fruit bat does not tolerate disturbance well.

*** The tube-nosed bats have laterally directed, tube-like nostrils, of uncertain function (Altringham 1996)


Status and Trends

IUCN Status:

  • 1994: Endangered
  • 1996 - 2004: Critically Endangered (Criteria: A2c) (Population Trend: Decreasing) (IUCN 2004)

Countries Where the Philippines Tube-nosed Fruit Bat Is Currently Found:

2004: Occurs in the Philippines (IUCN 2004).

History of Distribution:

The Philippines tube-nosed fruit bat lives in the remaining lowland rain forests of Negros, Cebu, and Sibuyan in the Philippines. This bat has only been seen once on Cebu, 10 years ago. On Sibuyan, only a small population survives in the hills. The largest population lives on Negros Island, where it now lives principally, perhaps entirely, in narrow ribbons of forest, usually only a few hundred meters (about 1000') wide, around the shoulders of two mountains in the southern part of the island and two in the north. (Heaney & Regalado 1998)

Threats and Reasons for Decline:

Habitat loss due to clearing and illegal logging is the major threat to the Philippines tube-nosed fruit bat. Less than 1% of its old-growth lowland forest habitat remains on Negros Island (Heaney & Regalado 1998).


Data on Biology and Ecology

Size:

The Philippines tube-nosed fruit bat has a wingspan of about 55cm (22").

Habitat:

The Philippines tube-nosed fruit bat is almost always found in primary, or good secondary, lowland tropical rainforest. Known breeding populations generally occur in a narrow elevational band of forest near the tops of high ridges and on the sides of tall mountains. The upper limit is about 1300 m (4300'). The lower limit used to be about 600 m (2000'), but as of 1992 it was about 800 - 900 m (2600 - 3000') and was rising as the forest is cleared. It is not found in agricultural or urban habitats (Mickleburgh 1992).

The Philippines tube-nosed fruit bat is one of the species that live in both the Philippines Biodiversity Hotspot (Cons. Intl. 2005) and the Philippines Moist Forests Global 200 Ecoregion. (Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999)

Age to Maturity:

Young females become pregnant at about 7 - 8 months and produce their first young at about 1 year of age. Males probably reach sexual maturity at about 1 year.

Gestation Period:

4.5 - 5 months.

Birth Season:

April - May.

Birth Rate:

Females produce only 1 young. There is 1 year between births.

Early Development:

Lactation lasts about 3 - 4 months.

Diet:

The Philippines tube-nosed fruit bat eats wild figs.

Behavior:

The Philippines tube-nosed fruit bat roosts in the forest, probably either in vegetation or large hollow trees, but never in caves. The limited evidence suggests that it rarely flies far from home. (Heaney & Regalado 1998)

Density and Range:

The density at Lake Balinsasayao has been recorded as 1 individual/3 hectares (1 individual/7.5 acres) (Mickleburgh 1992).


References

Altringham 1996, Bat Cons. Intl., Cons. Intl. 2005., Field Museum, Heaney & Regalado 1998, IUCN 1994, IUCN 1996, IUCN 2000, IUCN 2003a, IUCN 2004, Mickleburgh 1992, Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999


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Last modified: March 5, 2005;

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