(Other Names: Alfred's Sambar, Philippine Spotted Deer, Prince Alfred's Spotted Deer, Prince Alfred's Rusa, Prinz-Alfred-Hirsch,Visayan Deer)
Cervus alfredi (C. unicolor a., Rusa alfredi)
1. Profile (Picture)
The Visayan spotted deer is a small deer not much larger than some dogs, being about
80 cm (2.6') tall at the shoulder. It is found in forests, preferring areas where natural
disturbances such as fires or landslides opened the forest canopy and allowed young plants
to grow in the clearing. It was formerly found from sea level to the mountaintops.
*** The Visayan spotted deer is one of the world's rarest mammals.
*** The Visayan spotted deer was not recognized as a separate species until 1983.
*** The range of the Visayan spotted deer is essentially the same as that of the endangered Visayan warty pig, which is subjected to the same threats.
*** Much of the destruction of the forests of the Visayan Islands, which are home to this deer, may be attributed to landless peasants and indigenous tribal groups who moved into these areas to clear temporary agricultural plots, especially after lumber concessions were terminated and the sugar industry became depressed. These plots are known as kaingin, and their soil is rapidly exhausted and new plots must be cleared every few years. Tropical storms wash the sparse topsoil off of the bare hillsides into the sea (NFEFI 1998).
The Visayan spotted deer formerly occurred throughout the dense tropical forests of the Visayan Islands. A survey in 1985 indicated that small populations were found only in parts of the more remote forested regions of the four largest Visayan Islands - Panay, Negros, Leyte and Samar. A subsequent survey in 1991 found that it survives in small populations only on Panay and Negros and thus has been extirpated over 95% of its former range.
Hunting pressure as well as habitat loss due to clearing for agriculture and bad practices from legitimate logging operations (only a few percent of the original primary forest remains on Negros Island (NFEFI 1998).
Burton & Pearson 1987, Cons. Intl. 2005, Cox 1987, Czech Web Site, Heaney and Regalado 1998, Huffman 2004, IUCN 1994, IUCN 1996, IUCN 2000, IUCN 2003a, IUCN 2004, Macdonald 1984, NFEFI 1998, Nowak 1999, Oliver et al. 1991, Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999, Spec. Cons. Found.
Last modified: May 31, 2005;