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Animal Info - Calamian Deer

(Other Names: 卡拉密亚猪鹿, 喀拉米豚鹿, カラミアホッグジカ, Calamanian Deer, Calamian Hog Deer, Calamian-Schweinshirsch, Cerf-cochon Calamien, Ciervo de los Calamianes, Ciervo Porquerizo de los Calamianes, Philippine Deer)

Axis calamianensis (Cervus c., A. porcinus c.)

Status: Endangered


Contents

1. Profile (Picture)
2. Tidbits
3. Status and Trends (IUCN Status, Countries Where Currently Found, Population Estimates, History of Distribution, Threats and Reasons for Decline)
4. Data on Biology and Ecology (Size, Habitat, Gestation Period, Birth Season, Diet, Behavior, Social Organization)
5. References


Profile

Pictures: Calamian Deer #1 and Calamian Deer #2 (Huffman 2004)

Hog deer are heavy-set and compact, standing only about 28" high at the shoulder. They are generally found in riverine habitats, marshes and swamps with tall grasses. Axis deer are predominantly grazers, though they occasionally browse and will eat fallen flowers and fruits of forest trees. Where they are undisturbed they may form small herds; elsewhere they are mainly solitary. Axis deer normally rest during the hotter part of the day and move about at dawn and dusk. They may become nocturnal in the summer, or when molested by people.

The Calamian deer is known only from the Calamian Islands, which are located off the northern tip of Palawan, itself the westernmost island of the Philippines. In the 1940's it was to be found in surprisingly large numbers in all suitable localities throughout the islands of Busuanga and Culion, where most of the deer have always occurred. By the 1970's, a significant reduction in numbers had apparently occurred, and local populations had everywhere reached "dangerously low levels, with the possible exception of the extreme south of Culion." (Grimwood 1976)

Hunting for food has been the major cause of decline.


Tidbits

*** The name "hog deer" arises from its habit of crashing through the undergrowth with its head down like a wild pig, rather than leaping over obstacles like other deer.

*** Axis deer in general take readily to water and are said to be good swimmers.

*** There are no large predators on the Calamian Islands, other than man.

*** Forest clearance for settlement can actually increase the extent of the Calamian deer's natural habitat, since it prefers grassland and open forest to densely forested areas.


Status and Trends

IUCN Status:

Countries Where the Calamian Deer Is Currently Found:

2004: Occurs in the Philippines (Calamian Islands) (IUCN 2004).

Population Estimates:

[Note: Figures given are for wild populations only.]

History of Distribution:

The Calamian deer is known only from the Calamian Islands, which are located off the northern tip of Palawan, itself the westernmost island of the Philippines. In the 1940's it was to be found in surprisingly large numbers in all suitable localities throughout the islands of Busuanga and Culion, where most of the deer have always occurred. By the 1970's, a significant reduction in numbers had apparently occurred, and local populations had everywhere reached "dangerously low levels, with the possible exception of the extreme south of Culion." (Grimwood 1976)

Distribution Map (10 Kb GIF) (Huffman 2004)

Threats and Reasons for Decline:

Hunting for food has been the major cause of decline.


Data on Biology and Ecology

Size:

Hog deer stand only about 28" high at the shoulder.

Habitat:

Hog deer are generally found in riverine habitats, marshes and swamps with tall grass.

The Calamian deer lives in the Philippines Biodiversity Hotspot (Cons. Intl. 2005)

Gestation Period:

Hog deer have a gestation period of 8 months.

Birth Season:

April and May.

Diet:

Axis deer are predominantly grazers, though they occasionally browse and will eat fallen flowers and fruits of forest trees.

Behavior:

Axis deer normally rest during the hotter part of the day and move about at dawn and dusk. They may become nocturnal in the summer, or when molested by people.

Social Organization:

Where they are undisturbed they form small herds; otherwise they are mainly solitary.


References

Burton & Pearson 1987, Cons. Intl. 2005, Grimwood 1976, Huffman 2004, IUCN 1994, IUCN 1996, IUCN 2000, IUCN 2003a, IUCN 2004, Nowak & Paradiso 1983, Schaller 1967


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Last modified: March 5, 2005;

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